History of Bulgaria. In short about the most important points!

BulgariaToday’s Bulgaria more than 3000 years ago was inhabited by numerous Thracian tribes, representing an ancient people living in the east of the Balkans. The most famous of the tribes were the Odriss and Besses.

All the Thracians in the 5th century were united into the Kingdom of Odris, which was subordinated to the Romans at the beginning of the 2nd century. Its territory became part of the provinces of Moesia and Thrace, as well as Lesser Scythia. The whole territory of Bulgaria is simply covered with tombs of wealthy Thracians – in 3000 found tombs there were household utensils and things for life in the afterlife, which are supposedly useful to the deceased, were found.

Ancient people believed in this sacredly. Silver and gold was used to make these jewelry. The tombs were covered with earth, forming mounds. The Thracians also included the legendary gladiator named Spartacus, who led the rebellious Roman slaves.

Currently, in the Balkans (the southern and southeastern parts of Bulgaria, including the northern parts of the Turkish and Greek states) there is a vast territory called Thracia, which in Bulgarian sounds as Frakia.

Simultaneously with the Thracians, in Bulgaria 2000 years ago lived the Greeks, the ancient Greeks. Modern Bulgarian cities: Sozopol, Nessebar and Pomorie, located on the Black Sea coast, owe their origin to the Greeks, who in ancient times built these city-states.

The capture of the Thracian and Greek cities by the Greeks that appeared on the Balkan Peninsula began to take place in the first years of our era. Since that time, part of the territories of the modern states of Bulgaria, Turkey and Greece has become the Eastern Roman Empire, and with the light hand of historians – Byzantium.

The name of modern Istanbul in those days was Constantinople, and it was the capital of Byzantium. With the advent of the Romans, the Thracian tribes gradually lost their culture, it lasted the longest in rural areas located south of the Balkans. In the VI century, the Thracians, as a people, completely disappeared, the Slavs came to the peninsula, and paganism, after the revolt of the population of Thrace in Procopius, was banned.

The Slavs, who constantly raided Byzantium in the period from the 5th to the 7th centuries, settled for permanent residence on the territory between the Danube River and the Balkans, once left to winter. Since then (550-551) the Slavs live in Bulgaria.

In the 7th century, proto-Bulgarians and nomads appeared in Bulgaria, who as early as the 6th often attacked Byzantium, sometimes together with the Slavs. In 632, the leader of the Proto-Bulgarians, Asparuh of the Dulo clan, who had the title “Kanas Yuvigi”, something like a Grand Duke, was led to an equestrian detachment on the Balkan Peninsula.

Uniting with the Slavs, the Proto-Bulgarians fought with the Byzantine forces, seeding in the north-eastern part of the current state of Bulgaria. August 680 became tragic for Byzantium, because Asparuh defeated the troops of Emperor Constantine IV in the Battle of Ongal, which led to the conclusion of a peace treaty. This meant the Byzantine recognition of the State of Bulgaria, headed by Khan Asparuh.

However, the hostility of the states was constantly accompanied by battles, one of which ended on July 26, 811 with the victory of the Bulgarians, led by the ruler Krum the Terrible. In addition, under the terms of the peace treaty, Boris had to abandon the cities located on the Black Sea coast, preserving Zagora.

At the same time, the Cyril and Methodius brothers, born and living in the city of Solun, invented the Slavic alphabet, the basis of which became Greek and was called a glagolitic. A pupil of Cyril and Methodius, Kliment Ohritsky, created a new alphabet – the Cyrillic alphabet, becoming the founder of the Ohrid Book School. The labor of the brothers formed the basis of the Old Slavonic alphabet, which was used by the Russian and Bulgarian languages.

The young Bulgarian state, which pursued an aggressive policy in relations with Byzantium, expanded its borders to the Aegean and Adriatic seas by the beginning of the 10th century. The Bulgarian nation was formed from Slavs, Thracians, Proto-Bulgarians, and Hellenes and Byzantines participated in this process.

History of Bulgaria

History of Bulgaria

In the XI century, the state became a dangerous threat to Byzantium, but already in 1018 the danger was over, due to the fact that Bulgaria lost the war, losing its gained independence. The power over it of Byzantium continued until 1185.

The end of the 12th century turned out to be successful for the young state – the uprising led by Asen and Peter favored the restoration of the independence of the state. His independence was restored. During this period of time, many significant events took place in Bulgaria, among which April 14, 1205.

This date is marked as the defeat by king Kaloyan of the knights participating in the Fourth Crusade, passing through the Bulgarian state. The Byzantine state invited the Bulgarian and Serbian states to unite in the struggle against the Ottoman Empire. However, it received refusals from the military alliance from both states.

This was a big mistake, because in 1389 the state was a fertile region of Dobrudzha, now North-Eastern Bulgaria, where Turks began to dominate. 1393 was the year of the capture of the old Bulgarian capital – Veliko Tarnovo, located in its central part.

And in 1396, the state lost the last fortress in the North-Western part – the Vidin fortress, finally losing independence for 480 years. Being under the yoke of the Turks all this time, Bulgaria managed to preserve its language and written language.

The Turkish yoke ended, thanks to the start of the Russian-Turkish war of 1877-1878. [BR] [BR] All attempts to break out of the shackles of the Turkish government, repeatedly raising uprisings, which were crushed, having been unsuccessful. In April 1876, on April 20, the April Uprising that broke out, now the last, was also suppressed by the Turkish authorities. On April 24, 1877, a Russian emperor Alexander II signed a manifesto stating that Russia was at war with Turkey.

June 1877: a Russian army of 276,000 men, led by Prince Nikolai Nikolayevich, crossed the Danube River near the town of Svishchov. The militias from Bulgaria that joined them in the amount of 12,000 people became participants in the hostilities as well as the troops sent by Romania and Montenegro.

The battle for Pleven and the battle for Shipka in August 1877, when an enemy army of 27,000 men came out against 7,500 soldiers of the Russian army and militias turned out to be the hardest for the entire Russian – Turkish war. 1878 was the end of the war.

The warring parties signed a peace treaty in San Stefano, located near Istanbul, according to which, Bulgaria continued to remain part of the Turkish empire as a princedom – a vassal. Serbia and Romania with Montenegro won full independence.

The Berlin Congress, which met in the summer of 1878, ruled to divide the Bulgarian territory. The northern part became the Bulgarian Principality, and the southern, autonomous province of East Amelia of the Turkish Empire of Osman.

The result of the numerous riots that swept through Bulgaria, thanks to the popular support of the rebels in the Plovdiv district in early autumn 1885, on September 6 this year, Alexander Battenberg solemnly announced the fact of the country’s unification.

In 1908, September 22, Bulgaria again received the long-awaited independence. The price of independence is 125 million francs, which Turkey demanded from the Bulgarian state. Of these, 43 million voluntarily pledged to pay Russia. The Balkan war against Turkey first began in 1912.

Bulgaria is fighting together with Montenegro, Serbia and Greece, but already in the summer of next year, their interests diverged on the division of land seized from Turkey and, now, the allies are becoming enemies, fighting among themselves. The feud ended with Bulgaria agreeing to surrender the territory occupied by Southern Dobrudja and a significant part of the land occupied by Macedonia.

The First World War for Bulgaria took place in the territories of Serbia and Romania. Being one of the countries in the Triple Alliance, waging victorious battles, Bulgaria captured Bucharest.

The collapse of this union, which announced its surrender in 1918, forced the country to pay a million reparation as a result of the signing of the treaties. The rebellion of the Communists with the goal of overthrowing the Bulgarian government in September 1923 ended in defeat.

Historians call the Great Depression the period from 1929 to 1936, when the country experienced a recession, a crisis in agricultural product prices, a 40% reduction in industrial production and a threefold drop in the value of foreign trade. Only 1936 showed some recovery in the economy.

In 1935, Tsar Boris III ruled in Bulgaria. At this time, the influence on the Balkan Peninsula of Germany, with which Bulgaria had close economic ties, intensified. Both states had claims to the existing borders that the First World War “set”.

In World War II, Bulgaria, together with Germany, Italy and Japan, which was part of the Axis alliance, did not participate in battles with any troops, occupied some territories of such states as Serbia, Greece and Romania.

After the Bulgarian Communists came to power in September 9th, 1944, the Bulgarian army began to fight along with the countries of the anti-Hitler coalition, and already participated in the battles waged by Germany, Serbia, Austria and Hungary. Georgy Dimitrov, the hero of the Leipzig process about how the Reichstag was set on fire in Berlin, headed the Council of Ministers of the Bulgarian State. In Bulgaria, a political regime is established that is close to the regime in the USSR.

From 1954 to 1989, the Bulgarian state was led by Todor Zhivkov, deposed after the collapse of the famous Berlin Wall. It was November 1989. Albeit barely noticeable changes began to occur in the republic towards democracy. Then, almost every year, a change of cabinet took place in the country, led by representatives of various parties and movements

In 1990 – Andrey Lukanov (member of the BSP);
1991 – Dmitry Popov (member of the BSP;
1991-1992 – Philip Dimitrov (member of the SDS);
1992-1994 –Lyuben Berov (member of the BSP);
in 1994-1995 – Reneta Injova, (member of the government);
from 1995 to 1997 – Jean Videnov – (member of the BSP);
in 1997 – Stefan Sofiyansky – (member of the government);
from 1997 to 2001 – Ivan Kostov – (member of the SDS);
2001-2005 – Simeon of Sakskoburggotsky– (member of VATII);
2005-2009 Sergey Stanishchev – member of the BSP, VATII, DPS);
2009 – Boyko Borisov (member of the HERP).

The reason for the frequent change of government was the crisis in the country’s economy and, as a result, social instability. From 1990 to 2014, five early parliamentary elections were held in Bulgaria, and a total of nine new deputies were elected.

All 16 governments formed during this period showed their desire to liberalize the economy, orienting the entire foreign policy of the state to the West. In 1997, most parliamentary seats were received by representatives of the center-right bloc of the United Democratic Forces, not without the support of the SDS led by Ivan Kostov. In Bulgaria, where the economy was in critical condition, a tight monetary policy was pursued for 3 years, thanks to which the rampant jumps in inflation were stopped.

The period 1995-1997 was especially difficult for the country, when the BSP was in power, and the government was headed by Jean Videnov. Monthly inflation in the country looked like a three-digit number. 1 dollar was equal to 3,000 leva, the average salary in the country was only 30,000 leva or 10 dollars. Thanks to reforms and early privatization, after the overthrow of the power of the Socialist Party, Bulgaria became a full member of the EU on 01.01.2007.

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